The Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test is another body fat calculation that helps to provide a fairly accurate representation of an individual’s body fat percentage. The Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test is a simple method that can be performed without special equipment or professional training. All that is needed is a pair of skinfold calipers and a basic bathroom scale.

The Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test was developed by Dr. Andrew Jackson and M. L. Pollock, researchers and scholars in human movement. In 1978, the two researchers formulated a handful of related equations, which combined to call for an accurate estimation of body fat percentages through skinfold measurements.

The methodology behind the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test was to offer an easy way for individuals to understand their body fat percentages without having to endure highly technological testing with expensive equipment. The equations of the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test makes understanding your body composition a convenience.

The Jackson-Pollock 4 method gives an estimate of body fat percentage and lean body mass based on weight, age, and the thickness of four different skinfold measurements: tricep, suprailiac, abdominal and thigh.

With the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test method, the skinfold sites are the same for both males and females. The Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test differs from the Jackson-Pollock 3-spot body fat test in that it utilizes a fourth skinfold site, which in theory makes this method slightly more reliable.

The Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test is known to be fairly accurate for most people; however, body fat levels of very lean bodybuilders and performance athletes might be misrepresented. This is a common occurrence in body fat testing that utilizes mathematical equations based on skinfold measurements. Fortunately, athletes might experience more accurate results from multiple, back-to-back skinfold tests, or more specialized and technological methods.

With the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot body fat test, body fat can be easily and accurately measured for nearly all individuals. This well-tested formula makes it one of the more reliable body fat tests.

If you need help with measuring body fat with calipers, be sure to check out our guide.

Jackson-Pollock 4 Skinfold Locations for Males and Females

  • Tricep: The tricep measurement is a vertical skinfold that is taken halfway between the top portion of the shoulder and the elbow.
  • Suprailiac: For the suprailiac measurement, take a diagonal skinfold measurement above the superior anterior iliac crest, or the area above the upper and forward protrusion of the hip bone.
  • Abdominal: For the abdominal measurement, take a vertical fold of skin that is one inch to the right of the belly button.
  • Thigh: For the thigh measurement, a vertical fold of skin is to be taken that lies halfway between the knee cap, or the patella, and the inguinal crease (the location where the top of the thigh connects with the hip).

Jackson-Pollock 4 Body Fat Formula for Males

If you would like to calculate body fat using the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot method, and your test subject is a male, use the formula below.

Measure the following skinfolds (in millimeters) with body fat calipers:
Abdominal
, Tricep, Thigh and Suprailiac

Body Density = (0.29288 x sum of skinfolds) – (0.0005 x square of the sum of skinfolds) + (0.15845 x age) – 5.76377

Body Fat Percentage (%) = (495 / Body Density) – 450

Jackson-Pollock 4 Body Fat Formula for Females

If you would like to calculate body fat using the Jackson-Pollock 4-spot method, and your test subject is a female, use the formula below.

Measure the following skinfolds (in millimeters) with body fat calipers:
Abdominal
, Tricep, Thigh and Suprailiac

Body Density = (0.29669 x sum of skinfolds) – (0.00043 x square of the sum of skinfolds) + (0.02963 x age) + 1.4072

Body Fat Percentage (%) = (495 / Body Density) – 450

Jackson-Pollock 4 Body Fat Formula on FatCaliper+

The free version of FatCaliper+ comes with the Jackson-Pollock 3 and BMI body fat formulas. The full version of FatCaliper+ also comes with advanced body fat formulas, including Jackson-Pollock 4, Jackson-Pollock 7, Durnin-Womersley, Yuhasz, Parillo, US Navy and the FatCaliper+ method. BMI is automatically calculated as part of all body fat measurement methods.