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The Fitties Blog

Magnesium Supplementation: Everything You Need to Know

April 16, 2023 | Supplements and Nutrition

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in a wide range of physiological processes, including energy production, muscle and nerve function, and maintaining bone health. Despite its importance, magnesium deficiency is a common issue. Studies have shown that 48% of the US population consume less than the daily requirement of magnesium from foods.

Magnesium supplementation has been gaining increasing attention as a means to address this deficiency and promote optimal health. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the importance of the nutrient, the benefits of supplementation, and how to choose the right supplement to meet your needs.

The Role of Magnesium in the Body

Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzyme reactions in the body and plays a vital role in various physiological functions, including:

Energy production

Magnesium is required for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy source for cells. It plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism, helping to convert nutrients from food into usable energy. This process is essential for overall cellular function and maintaining optimal health.

Nerve function

Magnesium is essential for the proper transmission of nerve impulses, which helps regulate muscle contractions and maintain a healthy nervous system. It stabilizes the resting membrane potential of neurons, allowing them to transmit signals efficiently. Furthermore, magnesium plays a role in the release of neurotransmitters, which are the chemical messengers responsible for communication between neurons.

Muscle function

Magnesium is involved in muscle contractions and relaxation, helping to prevent muscle cramps and spasms. It acts as a natural calcium channel blocker, preventing excessive calcium influx into muscle cells, which can lead to involuntary contractions. Adequate magnesium levels are critical for maintaining muscle health and preventing issues such as cramps, spasms, and muscle weakness.

Bone health

Magnesium is essential for the formation and maintenance of healthy bones, working in conjunction with calcium and vitamin D to support optimal bone density. Approximately 60% of the body’s magnesium is stored in bones, where it contributes to bone mineralization and structural integrity. Magnesium also plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin, two hormones responsible for maintaining calcium homeostasis and bone health.

Cardiovascular health

Magnesium is vital for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, as it helps regulate blood pressure, supports normal heart rhythms, and assists in the prevention of arterial calcification. Studies have shown that individuals with adequate magnesium levels have a reduced risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Magnesium also has a vasodilatory effect, promoting blood vessel relaxation and proper blood flow throughout the body.

Causes of Magnesium Deficiency

Numerous factors can contribute to magnesium deficiency, including poor dietary intake, soil depletion, certain medications, gastrointestinal disorders, age, and kidney function. Being aware of these factors and taking steps to address them can help prevent magnesium deficiency and promote overall health.`

Poor dietary intake

A diet lacking in magnesium-rich foods, such as leafy greens, nuts, and whole grains, can lead to deficiency. Processed and refined foods often contain lower levels of magnesium, so individuals who rely heavily on these foods might not consume enough magnesium in their daily diet. Prioritizing whole, nutrient-dense foods can help increase magnesium intake and prevent deficiency.

Soil depletion

Modern farming practices have led to magnesium depletion in the soil, resulting in lower magnesium content in crops. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and monocropping can deplete essential minerals, including magnesium, from the soil. This, in turn, reduces the nutritional value of the produce grown in these soils. Choosing organic and locally grown produce, when possible, can help mitigate the effects of soil depletion on magnesium content.

Certain medications

Some medications, such as diuretics, proton pump inhibitors, and certain antibiotics, can interfere with magnesium absorption or increase its excretion. Long-term use of these medications can lead to magnesium deficiency. If you take medications that may affect magnesium levels, it’s important to discuss this with your healthcare provider to determine if supplementation is necessary.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Conditions like Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome can impair magnesium absorption in the gut. Individuals with these conditions may have a higher risk of developing magnesium deficiency due to reduced nutrient absorption. In such cases, working closely with a healthcare professional to monitor magnesium levels and adjust the diet or consider supplementation is essential.

Age and kidney function

As we age, our kidneys become less efficient at retaining magnesium, increasing the risk of deficiency. Older adults may require higher magnesium intake to maintain adequate levels. Additionally, individuals with reduced kidney function may experience increased magnesium excretion, leading to deficiency. It’s crucial for these individuals to work with their healthcare providers to monitor magnesium levels and adjust intake accordingly.

Benefits of Magnesium Supplementation

A growing body of research has highlighted the potential benefits of magnesium supplementation, including:

Sleep Improvement

Magnesium plays a role in regulating the body’s sleep-wake cycle and has been shown to improve sleep quality. A study published in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences found that magnesium supplementation improved insomnia severity, sleep efficiency, and sleep onset latency in elderly participants.

Stress Reduction and Mood Support

Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters responsible for mood regulation, such as serotonin. Research has indicated that magnesium supplementation may help alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. A study published in the journal PLoS ONE found that magnesium supplementation led to significant improvements in mild-to-moderate depression symptoms in adults.

Cardiovascular Health

Magnesium plays a crucial role in maintaining heart health by supporting healthy blood pressure, regulating heart rhythm, and preventing the buildup of arterial plaque. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of magnesium supplementation for cardiovascular health. A meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that magnesium supplementation reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in individuals with high blood pressure.

Muscle Function and Recovery

Magnesium is essential for proper muscle function, and supplementation can help prevent muscle cramps, spasms, and soreness. A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that magnesium supplementation improved muscle strength and performance in athletes.

Migraine Prevention

Magnesium deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of migraines. Research has shown that magnesium supplementation can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines. A study published in the journal Cephalalgia found that magnesium supplementation significantly reduced migraine attack frequency compared to a placebo.

Incorporating Magnesium-Rich Foods into Your Diet

In addition to supplementation, incorporating magnesium-rich foods into your diet can help support optimal magnesium levels. Some magnesium-rich foods include:

  • Leafy greens: Spinach, kale, and Swiss chard are excellent sources of magnesium.
  • Nuts and seeds: Almonds, cashews, and pumpkin seeds provide significant amounts of magnesium.
  • Whole grains: Brown rice, quinoa, and whole wheat bread are good sources of magnesium.
  • Legumes: Beans, lentils, and chickpeas are rich in magnesium.
  • Dark chocolate: High-quality dark chocolate containing at least 70% cocoa provides a healthy dose of magnesium.

Choosing the Right Magnesium Supplement

With various forms of magnesium supplements available, it’s essential to select the right one to meet your needs.

Types of Magnesium Supplements

  • Magnesium citrate: This highly bioavailable form of magnesium is often used to support digestion and alleviate constipation. Magnesium citrate works by attracting water to the intestines, which helps soften stool and stimulate bowel movements. In addition to its laxative properties, magnesium citrate may also help reduce symptoms of indigestion and acid reflux.
  • Magnesium glycinate: Known for its high absorption rate and gentle effect on the stomach, magnesium glycinate is ideal for those seeking to improve sleep and reduce anxiety. This chelated form of magnesium is bound to the amino acid glycine, which enhances absorption and reduces the likelihood of gastrointestinal side effects. Magnesium glycinate’s calming properties make it a popular choice for individuals experiencing stress, insomnia, or mood disorders.
  • Magnesium malate: This easily absorbed form of magnesium has been shown to support muscle function and alleviate symptoms of fibromyalgia. Magnesium malate is a combination of magnesium and malic acid, a naturally occurring compound found in fruits and vegetables. Malic acid plays a key role in energy production and may help reduce muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness associated with fibromyalgia.
  • Magnesium oxide: Although it has a lower bioavailability compared to other forms, magnesium oxide is commonly used to relieve constipation and heartburn. It functions as an antacid by neutralizing stomach acid, providing relief from acid reflux and indigestion. Due to its lower absorption rate, magnesium oxide may cause gastrointestinal side effects in some individuals, such as diarrhea or stomach cramps.
  • Magnesium taurate: This form of magnesium, which is found in our FitNeuro supplement, is ideal for cardiovascular support due to its combination with the amino acid taurine, which has heart-protective properties. Magnesium taurate may help regulate blood pressure, support healthy heart rhythm, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, taurine has been shown to support nerve function and promote a healthy stress response, making magnesium taurate a versatile option for overall health and well-being.

Magnesium L-Threonate – A Unique Form of Magnesium for Cognitive Health

Magnesium L-threonate is a unique and highly bioavailable form of magnesium that has gained attention for its potential cognitive benefits. Developed by a team of researchers at MIT, magnesium L-threonate is designed to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to be more efficiently absorbed by brain cells.

Benefits of Magnesium L-Threonate

Research suggests that magnesium L-threonate may offer specific advantages for cognitive health, including:

  • Improved memory: A study published in the journal Neuron demonstrated that magnesium L-threonate supplementation in rats led to an increase in synaptic density, which is crucial for learning and memory. The study also found that magnesium L-threonate improved both short-term and long-term memory.
  • Enhanced cognitive function: Research suggests that magnesium L-threonate may help alleviate age-related cognitive decline. A study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease found that older rats given magnesium L-threonate exhibited improved cognitive function compared to a control group.
  • Reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression: Magnesium L-threonate has been linked to a reduction in anxiety and depression symptoms. A study published in the journal Behavioural Brain Research found that magnesium L-threonate treatment in mice led to reduced anxiety-like behavior and decreased depressive-like symptoms.

Dosage and Safety

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for magnesium varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Generally, adult men require 400-420 mg per day, while adult women need 310-320 mg per day. Pregnant and breastfeeding women may require higher amounts.

Magnesium supplementation is generally considered safe, but it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen, especially if you have kidney disease or are taking medications that may interact with magnesium. Always follow the recommended dosages provided on the product label or as advised by a healthcare professional.


Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in numerous physiological processes. Supplementation can help address common deficiencies and promote optimal health. By understanding the different types of magnesium supplements and incorporating magnesium-rich foods into your diet, you can harness the power of this vital nutrient to support your overall well-being. Always consult with a healthcare professional before beginning any new supplement regimen to ensure safety and effectiveness.

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